Response

The functions related to the response in RequestContext.
func (ctx *RequestContext) SetContentType(contentType string)
func (ctx *RequestContext) SetContentTypeBytes(contentType []byte)
func (ctx *RequestContext) SetConnectionClose()
func (ctx *RequestContext) SetStatusCode(statusCode int)
func (ctx *RequestContext) Status(code int)
func (ctx *RequestContext) NotFound()
func (ctx *RequestContext) NotModified()
func (ctx *RequestContext) Redirect(statusCode int, uri []byte)
func (ctx *RequestContext) Header(key, value string)
func (ctx *RequestContext) SetCookie(name, value string, maxAge int, path, domain string, sameSite protocol.CookieSameSite, secure, httpOnly bool)
func (ctx *RequestContext) AbortWithStatus(code int)
func (ctx *RequestContext) AbortWithError(code int, err error) *errors.Error

SetContentType

Set Content-Type.

Function Signature:

func (ctx *RequestContext) SetContentType(contentType string)

Example Code:

h.GET("/user", func(c context.Context, ctx *app.RequestContext) {
    ctx.Write([]byte(`{"foo":"bar"}`))
    ctx.SetContentType("application/json; charset=utf-8")
    // Content-Type: application/json; charset=utf-8
})

SetContentTypeBytes

Set Content Type with type []byte.

Function Signature:

func (ctx *RequestContext) SetContentTypeBytes(contentType []byte)

Example Code:

h.GET("/user", func(c context.Context, ctx *app.RequestContext) {
    ctx.Write([]byte(`{"foo":"bar"}`))
    ctx.SetContentType([]byte("application/json; charset=utf-8"))
    // Content-Type: application/json; charset=utf-8
})

SetConnectionClose

Set Connection: close to inform the client that the server wants to close the connection.

Function Signature:

func (ctx *RequestContext) SetConnectionClose()

Example Code:

h.GET("/user", func(c context.Context, ctx *app.RequestContext) {
    ctx.SetConnectionClose()
})

SetStatusCode

Set Status Code.

Function Signature:

func (ctx *RequestContext) SetStatusCode(statusCode int)

Example Code:

h.GET("/user", func(c context.Context, ctx *app.RequestContext) {
    ctx.SetStatusCode(consts.StatusOK)
    // Status Code: 200
})

Status

Set Status Code, which is an alias for SetStatusCode.

Function Signature:

func (ctx *RequestContext) Status(code int)

Example Code:

h.GET("/user", func(c context.Context, ctx *app.RequestContext) {
    ctx.Status(consts.StatusOK)
    // Status Code: 200
})

NotFound

Set the Status Code to 404.

Function Signature:

func (ctx *RequestContext) NotFound()

Example Code:

h.GET("/user", func(c context.Context, ctx *app.RequestContext) {
    ctx.NotFound()
    // Status Code: 404
})

NotModified

Set the Status Code to 304.

Function Signature:

func (ctx *RequestContext) NotModified()

Example Code:

h.GET("/user", func(c context.Context, ctx *app.RequestContext) {
    ctx.NotModified()
    // Status Code: 304
})

Redirect

Set the Status Code and the address to jump to.

Function Signature:

func (ctx *RequestContext) Redirect(statusCode int, uri []byte)

Example Code:

// internal redirection
// GET http://www.example.com:8888/user
h.GET("/user", func(c context.Context, ctx *app.RequestContext) {
    ctx.Redirect(consts.StatusFound, []byte("/pet"))
})
// GET http://www.example.com:8888/pet
h.GET("/pet", func(c context.Context, ctx *app.RequestContext) {
    ctx.String(consts.StatusOK, "cat")
})

// external redirection
// GET http://www.example.com:8888/user
h.GET("/user", func(c context.Context, ctx *app.RequestContext) {
    ctx.Redirect(consts.StatusFound, []byte("http://www.example1.com:8888/pet"))
})
// GET http://www.example1.com:8888/pet
h.GET("/pet", func(c context.Context, ctx *app.RequestContext) {
    ctx.String(consts.StatusOK, "cat")
})

Header

Set or delete the specified header.

Function Signature:

func (ctx *RequestContext) Header(key, value string)

Example Code:

h.GET("/user", func(c context.Context, ctx *app.RequestContext) {
    ctx.Header("My-Name", "tom")
    ctx.Header("My-Name", "")
    ctx.Header("My-Name-Not-Exists", "yes")
})

SetCookie

Set Cookie.

Function Signature:

func (ctx *RequestContext) SetCookie(name, value string, maxAge int, path, domain string, sameSite protocol.CookieSameSite, secure, httpOnly bool)

Example Code:

h.GET("/user", func(c context.Context, ctx *app.RequestContext) {
    ctx.SetCookie("user", "hertz", 1, "/", "localhost", protocol.CookieSameSiteLaxMode, true, true)
    cookie := ctx.Response.Header.Get("Set-Cookie")
    // cookie == "user=hertz; max-age=1; domain=localhost; path=/; HttpOnly; secure; SameSite=Lax"
})

Partitioned Cookies (Experimental Feature)

Starting January 2024, Chrome restricts third-party cookies by default for 1% of users, blocking SameSite=None attribute cookies. Partitioned cookies (also known as CHIPS) are introduced as a privacy-preserving alternative for third-party cookies in cross-site requests.

Support for partitioned cookies is available as an experimental feature since version 0.8.0, following the current RFC draft and subject to future changes.

Example Code:

func SetPartitionedCookie(ctx *app.RequestContext, name, value string, maxAge int, path, domain string, sameSite protocol.CookieSameSite, secure, httpOnly bool) {
   if path == "" {
      path = "/"
   }
   cookie := protocol.AcquireCookie()
   defer protocol.ReleaseCookie(cookie)
   // It is recommended to use the __Host prefix when setting partitioned cookies
   // to make them bound to the hostname (and not the registrable domain).
   cookie.SetKey(name)
   cookie.SetValue(url.QueryEscape(value))
   cookie.SetMaxAge(maxAge)
   // if name has __Host prefix, Path must be set to "/”.
   cookie.SetPath(path)
   cookie.SetDomain(domain)
   // Partitioned cookies must be set with Secure.
   cookie.SetSecure(secure)
   cookie.SetHTTPOnly(httpOnly)
   cookie.SetSameSite(sameSite)
   cookie.SetPartitioned(true)
   // Set-Cookie: user=hertz; max-age=1; domain=localhost; path=/; HttpOnly; secure; SameSite=None; Partitioned
   ctx.Response.Header.SetCookie(cookie)
}

func main() {
   h := server.Default()

   h.GET("/partitioned", func(ctx context.Context, c *app.RequestContext) {
      SetPartitionedCookie(c, "user", "hertz", 1, "/", "localhost", protocol.CookieSameSiteNoneMode, true, true)
      c.JSON(consts.StatusOK, utils.H{"partitioned": "yes"})
   })

   h.Spin()
}

AbortWithStatus

Set the Status Code and terminate subsequent handlers.

Function Signature:

func (ctx *RequestContext) AbortWithStatus(code int)

Example Code:

h.GET("/user", func(c context.Context, ctx *app.RequestContext) {
    ctx.AbortWithStatus(consts.StatusOK)
}, func(c context.Context, ctx *app.RequestContext) {
    // will not execute
})

AbortWithError

Set the Status Code and collect Errors, terminate subsequent handlers, and return an Error.

Function Signature:

func (ctx *RequestContext) AbortWithError(code int, err error) *errors.Error

Example Code:

h.GET("/user", func(c context.Context, ctx *app.RequestContext) {
    ctx.AbortWithError(consts.StatusOK, errors.New("hertz error"))
	err := ctx.Errors.String()
	// err == "Error #01: hertz error"
}, func(c context.Context, ctx *app.RequestContext) {
    // will not execute
})

ResponseHeader

Use RequestContext.Response.Header to obtain the ResponseHeader object, this object provides the following methods to obtain/set the response header.

Function SignatureDescription
func (h *ResponseHeader) IsHTTP11() boolDetermine if it is the HTTP/1.1 protocol, and true indicates it is the HTTP/1.1 protocol
func (h *ResponseHeader) SetHeaderLength(length int)Set the length of the response header
func (h *ResponseHeader) GetHeaderLength()Get the length of the response header
func (h *ResponseHeader) SetContentRange(startPos, endPos, contentLength int)Set Content-Range: bytes startPos-endPos/contentLength in the response header, such as Content-Range: bytes 1-5/10
func (h *ResponseHeader) NoDefaultContentType() boolObtain the default sending behavior when no Content-Type is specified. False indicates sending the default Content-Type value, true indicates not sending, and the default Content-Type value is text/plain; charset=utf-8
func (h *ResponseHeader) SetNoDefaultContentType(b bool)Set the default sending behavior when no Content-Type is specified. False indicates sending the default Content-Type value, true indicates not sending, and the default Content-Type value is text/plain; charset=utf-8
func (h *ResponseHeader) SetContentType(contentType string)Set Content-Type
func (h *ResponseHeader) ContentType() []byteObtain Content-Type
func (h *ResponseHeader) SetContentTypeBytes(contentType []byte)Set Content-Type
func (h *ResponseHeader) ContentLength() intObtain Content-Length, which can be a negative value. -1 represents Transfer-Encoding: chunked, -2 represents Transfer-Encoding: identity
func (h *ResponseHeader) SetContentLength(contentLength int)Set Content-Length, which can be a negative value. -1 represents Transfer-Encoding: chunked, -2 represents Transfer-Encoding: identity
func (h *ResponseHeader) SetContentLengthBytes(contentLength []byte)Set Content-Length for type []byte, which can be a negative value. -1 represents Transfer-Encoding: chunked, -2 represents Transfer-Encoding: identity
func (h *ResponseHeader) CopyTo(dst *ResponseHeader)Return a copy of the response header, which can be used when there is competitive access to the response header
func (h *ResponseHeader) GetHeaders() []argsKVReturn all response headers in the form of key value pairs
func (h *ResponseHeader) VisitAll(f func(key, value []byte))Visit all the key values of all headers and execute the f function
func (h *ResponseHeader) Get(key string) stringObtain the value of key, concurrency security
func (h *ResponseHeader) GetAll(key string) []stringObtain all values of key with type []byte (used to obtain multiple values with the same key), concurrency safety
func (h *ResponseHeader) Peek(key string) []byteObtain a key value of type []byte as key, which is not secure for concurrency, and using Get when competing for access
func (h *ResponseHeader) PeekAll(key string) [][]byteObtain all values of type []byte key as key (used to obtain multiple values with the same key), which is not secure for concurrency, and uses GetAll when competing for access
func (h *ResponseHeader) Set(key, value string)Set the header key value to set a single header for the same key
func (h *ResponseHeader) SetBytesV(key string, value []byte)Set the header key value of type []byte to set a single header for the same key
func (h *ResponseHeader) Add(key, value string)Set the header key value to set multiple headers for the same key, but the key will overwrite the following headers: Content Type, Content Length, Connection, Cookie, Transfer Encoding, Host, User Agent
func (h *ResponseHeader) AddArgBytes(key, value []byte, noValue bool)Add Header key value (different from Add, the key must not be normalized and will not undergo special processing when it is Content-Type, Content-Length, Content-Encoding, Connection, Server, Set-Cookie, Transfer-Encoding)
func (h *ResponseHeader) SetArgBytes(key, value []byte, noValue bool)Set Header key value (different from Set, the key must not be normalized and will not undergo special processing when it is Content-Type, Content-Length, Content-Encoding, Connection, Server, Set-Cookie, Transfer-Encoding)
func (h *ResponseHeader) Del(key string)Delete key value pairs with key in the header
func (h *ResponseHeader) DelBytes(key []byte)Delete key value pairs with key in the header
func (h *ResponseHeader) AppendBytes(dst []byte) []byteAttach the complete header to the dst and return
func (h *ResponseHeader) Header() []byteObtain the complete header of type []byte
func (h *ResponseHeader) PeekLocation() []byteReturn the value with key Location in the header
func (h *ResponseHeader) Cookie(cookie *Cookie) boolFill cookie for the given cookie.Key, and return false if the cookie.Key is missing
func (h *RequestHeader) FullCookie() []byteReturn the complete cookie as a byte array
func (h *ResponseHeader) SetCookie(cookie *Cookie)Set Cookie Key Values
func (h *ResponseHeader) VisitAllCookie(f func(key, value []byte))Visit all the key values of all cookies and execute the f function
func (h *ResponseHeader) DelAllCookies()Delete all cookies
func (h *ResponseHeader) DelCookie(key string)Delete cookie with key in the response header. To delete cookies from the client, use the DelClientCookie function
func (h *ResponseHeader) DelCookieBytes(key []byte)Delete cookie with key in the response header. To delete cookies from the client, use the DelClientCookieBytes function
func (h *ResponseHeader) DelClientCookie(key string)Remove the cookie from the client
func (h *ResponseHeader) DelClientCookieBytes(key []byte)Remove the cookie from the client
func (h *ResponseHeader) SetConnectionClose(close bool)Set the Connection: close flag in the response header
func (h *ResponseHeader) ConnectionClose() boolDetermine if Connection: close is included
func (h *ResponseHeader) ContentEncoding() []byteObtion Content-Encoding
func (h *ResponseHeader) SetContentEncoding(contentEncoding string)Set Content-Encoding
func (h *ResponseHeader) SetContentEncodingBytes(contentEncoding []byte)Set Content-Encoding
func (h *ResponseHeader) SetCanonical(key, value []byte)Set the Header key value, assuming that the key is in canonical form
func (h *ResponseHeader) Server() []byteReturn the value with key Server in the header
func (h *ResponseHeader) SetServerBytes(server []byte)Set the key in the header to the value of Server
func (h *ResponseHeader) MustSkipContentLength() boolDetermine if there is a response body (according to the HTTP/1.1 protocol, there is no response body when the response status codes are 1xx, 204, or 304)
func (h *ResponseHeader) StatusCode() intObtion StatusCode
func (h *ResponseHeader) SetStatusCode(statusCode int)Set StatusCode
func (h *ResponseHeader) Len() intReturn the number of headers
func (h *ResponseHeader) DisableNormalizing()Disable the normalization of header name (capitalize the first letter and the first letter after the Em dash)
func (h *ResponseHeader) IsDisableNormalizing() boolWhether to disable the normalization of header names, default not disabled
func (h *ResponseHeader) Trailer() *TrailerGet Trailer
func (h *ResponseHeader) SetProtocol(p string)Set protocol name
func (h *ResponseHeader) GetProtocol() stringGet protocol name
func (h *ResponseHeader) Reset()Reset the response header
func (h *ResponseHeader) ResetSkipNormalize()Reset the response header, except for the disableNormalizing state
func (h *ResponseHeader) ResetConnectionClose()Reset the connectionClose flag to false and delete the Connection Header

Render

Hertz supports rendering of JSON, HTML, Protobuf, etc. (For more information, please refer to Render)

func (ctx *RequestContext) Render(code int, r render.Render)
func (ctx *RequestContext) String(code int, format string, values ...interface{})
func (ctx *RequestContext) ProtoBuf(code int, obj interface{})
func (ctx *RequestContext) JSON(code int, obj interface{})
func (ctx *RequestContext) PureJSON(code int, obj interface{})
func (ctx *RequestContext) IndentedJSON(code int, obj interface{})
func (ctx *RequestContext) HTML(code int, name string, obj interface{})
func (ctx *RequestContext) Data(code int, contentType string, data []byte)
func (ctx *RequestContext) XML(code int, obj interface{})

Body

func (ctx *RequestContext) SetBodyStream(bodyStream io.Reader, bodySize int)
func (ctx *RequestContext) SetBodyString(body string)
func (ctx *RequestContext) Write(p []byte) (int, error)
func (ctx *RequestContext) WriteString(s string) (int, error)
func (ctx *RequestContext) AbortWithMsg(msg string, statusCode int)
func (ctx *RequestContext) AbortWithStatusJSON(code int, jsonObj interface{})

SetBodyStream

Set Body Stream and optional Body Size. This function is used for streaming processing on Hertz Server, as detailed in Streaming.

Note: When the bodySize is less than 0, all data is written. When it is greater than or equal to 0, data is written based on the set bodySize size.

Function Signature:

func (ctx *RequestContext) SetBodyStream(bodyStream io.Reader, bodySize int)

Example Code:

h.GET("/user", func(c context.Context, ctx *app.RequestContext) {
    data := "hello world"
    r := strings.NewReader(data)
    ctx.SetBodyStream(r, -1) // Body: "hello world"
})

h.GET("/user1", func(c context.Context, ctx *app.RequestContext) {
    data := "hello world"
    r1 := strings.NewReader(data)
    ctx.SetBodyStream(r1, 5) // Body: "hello"
})

SetBodyString

Set Body.

Function Signature:

func (ctx *RequestContext) SetBodyString(body string)

Example Code:

h.GET("/user", func(c context.Context, ctx *app.RequestContext) {
    ctx.SetBodyString("hello world") // Body: "hello world"
})

Write

Add the byte array p to the Body.

Function Signature:

func (ctx *RequestContext) Write(p []byte) (int, error)

Example Code:

h.GET("/user", func(c context.Context, ctx *app.RequestContext) {
    ctx.Write([]byte("hello"))
    ctx.Write([]byte(" "))
    ctx.Write([]byte("world"))
    // Body: "hello world"
})

WriteString

Set the Body and return the size.

Function Signature:

func (ctx *RequestContext) WriteString(s string) (int, error)

Example Code:

h.GET("/user", func(c context.Context, ctx *app.RequestContext) {
    size, _ := ctx.WriteString("hello world")// Body: "hello world", size == 11
})

AbortWithMsg

Set the Status Code and Body and terminate subsequent handlers.

Function Signature:

func (ctx *RequestContext) AbortWithMsg(msg string, statusCode int)

Example Code:

h.GET("/user", func(c context.Context, ctx *app.RequestContext) {
    ctx.AbortWithMsg("abort", consts.StatusOK)
}, func(c context.Context, ctx *app.RequestContext) {
    // will not execute
})

AbortWithStatusJSON

Set Status Code and Json format Body and terminate subsequent handlers.

Function Signature:

func (ctx *RequestContext) AbortWithStatusJSON(code int, jsonObj interface{})

Example Code:

 h.GET("/user", func(c context.Context, ctx *app.RequestContext) {
  ctx.AbortWithStatusJSON(consts.StatusOK, utils.H{
   "foo":  "bar",
   "html": "<b>",
  })
 }, func(c context.Context, ctx *app.RequestContext) {
  // will not execute
 })

File operation

func (ctx *RequestContext) File(filepath string)
func (ctx *RequestContext) FileAttachment(filepath, filename string)
func (ctx *RequestContext) FileFromFS(filepath string, fs *FS)

File

Write the specified file to Body Stream.

Function Signature:

func (ctx *RequestContext) File(filepath string)

Example Code:

h.GET("/user", func(c context.Context, ctx *app.RequestContext) {
    ctx.File("./main.go")
})

FileAttachment

Write the specified file to Body Stream and specify it as download through Content-Disposition.

Function Signature:

func (ctx *RequestContext) FileAttachment(filepath, filename string)

Example Code:

h.GET("/user", func(c context.Context, ctx *app.RequestContext) {
    ctx.FileAttachment("./main.go")
})

FileFromFS

Write the specified file to Body Stream.

Function Signature:

func (ctx *RequestContext) FileFromFS(filepath string, fs *FS)

Example Code:

h.GET("/user", func(c context.Context, ctx *app.RequestContext) {
    ctx.FileFromFS("./main.go", &app.FS{
        Root:               ".",
        IndexNames:         nil,
        GenerateIndexPages: false,
        AcceptByteRange:    true,
    })
})

Other Functions

func (ctx *RequestContext) Flush() error
func (ctx *RequestContext) GetResponse() (dst *protocol.Response)

Flush

Brush data into the hijacked Response Writer. (For more information, please refer to response_writer)

Function Signature:

func (ctx *RequestContext) Flush() error

GetResponse

Get the Response object.

Function Signature:

func (ctx *RequestContext) GetResponse() (dst *protocol.Response)

Last modified June 24, 2024 : fix: correct the file path (#1096) (b3fa1a4)